# Balloon Cars!

General Topics: Kinetic Energy, Mechanics, Physics, Simple Machines

In this activity we explored the process of how forces work and how a force in one direction can cause motion in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law). The exercise had the students learning how to make a car powered by a balloon to be blown up and released. This gives the car forward motion!

Each student was given the cardboard pieces to assemble together, followed by the pencil axle, and the wheels. While the cardboard pieces were already cut to size, the students still had to measure the car sides and cut in slots for their wheel axles. This taught them how to use a ruler and measure items in inches. When the wheels and body were complete, the balloon was added and students could race their balloon cars!

This class we learned:

• Newton’s third law (every action has an opposite and equal reaction)
• Using a ruler and the difference between meters and inches

Things to keep in mind for future activities:

• Originally we were hoping to add a motor to the car or another electronic component but with the time to make the car, there was not enough time for an additional electronic component. In the future possibly pre-assembling the car or splitting into two sessions would be best

# Making Motors!

General Topics: Electromagnetic Energy, Electronics, Physics, Simple Machines

In this activity we explored the process of how electromagnetism works and how electromagnetism is used to create motors! The exercise had the students learning how to make a very basic motor using a copper wire, magnets, and a battery passing current through the device. The students had to find the best height above the magnets to allow for wire movement!

Each student was first given the copper wire to coil up themselves. Once in a coil, the students used sandpaper to remove the coating on the wire (as it was galvanized).

The students were then given their cups, paper clips, and magnets and asked to assemble the body of their motors. The students were then given the alligator clips and battery to hook up their circuit. The paper clips were initially placed in a semi arbitrary distance from the magnet, but the actual distance of the paper clip from the magnet would vary and the students worked to find the ideal distance! Students worked to find what distance worked best to get their motors going. Once completed, their copper coils went spinning!

This class we learned:

• What a magnetic field is
• What an electromagnetic field is
• How current running through a wire creates an electromagnetic field
• How motors work
• How magnets work

Things to keep in mind for future activities:

• Students had a bit of trouble coiling the wires. For this age group we may want to pre-coil them
• Future designs of the paper cup motor should allow for easier movement of the paperclips to change the distance from the magnet

# Making a Lens Camera!

General Topics: Optics, Physics, Visual Perception

In this activity we explored the process of building a lens camera. This exercise was used to teach how lenses work, from a camera to our own eyes. The students were given the materials to assemble and asked to explain various observations they made with their lens cameras.

Students were able to decorate their lens camera any way they liked at the end!

The students were given all pieces of the camera to work on. The first challenge was to assemble the walls and base of the camera. The arrangement of the pieces to form a square is the beginnings of being able to visualize and design in 3D space!

The next piece was completing the front which holds the magnifying lens. Two rubber bands crossing each other were used to hold the magnifying lens so that it may be removed to be used for any science explorations outside of this specific project! This was then attached to the rest of the camera.

The final piece was placing the tissue paper onto the sliding component. This would act as the screen to have the light (and thus images) projected on. This component can slide closer and further away from the magnifying lens in order to focus the image. Afterwards the students were able to learn about how light density, combined with distance of the sliding component, affected the ability to view images!

This class we learned:

• How lenses work
• How our eyes work
• How light comes into lenses
• What light is and how it allows us to see

Things to keep in mind for future activities:

• Some students had trouble tying the rubber bands together, we should have longer rubber band pieces in the future
• Adding an extension which corrects the orientation of the image being projected so students understand how cameras and other lenses correct for this would be a great additional lesson